Funded by the WITH Foundation
Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders
Roberto Blanco, MD, Karyn Harvey, PhD, Jill Hinton, PhD, and Andrea Caoili, LCSW
- Communicating with Patients with IDD and Their Family Members
- Considerations for Waiting Rooms
- Sensory Considerations for Medical Providers
- Cultural Competency and Prescribing
- Abilities Based on Level of IDD
- Developmental considerations that impact psychiatric assessment
Best Practices in MH Diagnosis and Treatment
- Trauma and Stressor Related Disorders
- Anxiety Disorders
- Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders
- Depressive Disorders
- Bipolar Disorders
- Grief and Loss
- Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders
“We need to presume the clients we serve have a history of traumatic stress and exercise ‘universal precautions’ by creating systems of care that are trauma-informed.”1
Trauma is a common reality in the lives of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There are several typologies of trauma that people with IDD might experience, and Table 1 represents a listing of the most commonly reported experiences (people may have one or more of these during their lifetime).
Table 1. Most commonly reported traumatic experiences
Presentation of trauma-related disorders in persons with IDD
Several variables influence the clinical presentation of trauma and stressor-related disorders: gender, age of the person at the time of the traumatic experience, type of triggering event, frequency and persistence of abuse, and/or the source of trauma (family member, stranger, natural phenomenon). Each vulnerability factor represents psychosocial sources that interact with neurobiological vulnerabilities such as genetic risk factors, temperament, intensity of physiological response, and co-occurring neurodevelopmental and/or psychiatric disorders. For individuals with IDD, additional considerations include factors that contribute to resilience, including the degree of cognitive capacity, problem solving abilities, communication skills, and adaptive skills, along with social supports.
Social trauma frequently goes unnoticed and under-reported by informants involved in the lives of people with IDD. Left unaddressed, both large (“big T”) traumas and smaller (little “t”) traumas such as bullying, isolation and exclusion can serve as risk factors that lower the threshold for persistent post-traumatic stress disorder.
The prevalence of trauma and stressor-related disorders therefore may be largely underestimated and should be considered in diagnosis and treatment planning. The DSM-52 and DM-ID-23 provide a diagnostic framework for Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders.
Trauma and Stressor Related Disorders (DSM-5)
- Posttraumatic Stress Disorder for children 6 and under
- Acute Stress Disorders
- Adjustment Disorders
- Reactive Attachment Disorder
- Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder
- Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is the most well-known and commonly diagnosed trauma and stressor related disorder. Diagnosis of PTSD requires exposure to actual or threatened death or serious harm (direct, witnessing, learning of violent event for close family member/friend). Symptoms associated with PTSD are included in the table below.
Table 2. PTSD symptom presentation in persons with IDD
|PTSD symptom category
|Presentation in persons with IDD
|Re-experiencing the event may manifest in symptoms that are more overtly behavioral (concrete) and may include self-injurious behavior and trauma-specific re-enactments. Re-enactments can look quite bizarre and it is important to distinguish such symptoms from psychotic disorder symptoms.
|Can sometimes be seen or described as non-compliance
|Alterations in cognition and mood
|Negative emotional states may present in externalizing behaviors
|Alterations in arousal and reactivity
|Aggressive behavior is often described as “coming out of nowhere”
Each of these neurodevelopmental and emotional/behavioral responses relates to the acuity and severity of traumatizing events, level of activation of the stress response (fight, flight or freeze response), and duration of symptoms. The differences among responses should remind us of the heterogeneity of trauma symptoms as a result of the unique perspectives of each person. For people diagnosed with PTSD, several factors relate to chronicity and the evolution of new behavioral and psychiatric comorbidities. A clue to the presence of transformed PTSD is the presence of treatment-refractory mood, psychotic, behavioral and substance use disorders in the context of comorbid PTSD or history of past trauma. These individuals may experience multiple medication trials and failures but make significant gains with trauma-informed therapeutic interventions.
To accurately assess PTSD for people with IDD/ASD, differing presentations to common symptoms should be considered, as described in Table 2. There are also some additional adaptations to consider:
Adaptations of diagnostic criteria for PTSD
- Investigate history for possible traumatic exposure; Caregivers may or may not be aware of exposure to trauma
- It is essential to ask the person how they felt about the events
- Keep in mind that adults with ID may express trauma in overt, behavioral ways rather than via verbal expression
- When caregivers report “non-compliance” as a problem, consider the presence of avoidance
- Hyperarousal may present as irritability and/or aggression
Trauma-Informed Care and Psychotherapeutic Interventions
It can be difficult to accurately diagnose PTSD in individuals with IDD and studies to guide appropriate treatment of individuals with IDD and co-occurring PTSD are limited. Characteristics of therapies for treating PTSD include increased caregiver support, psychoeducation and training, along with availability of multiple therapists and trainers to address individual needs. Most available evidence points to treatment using Trauma Focused-Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR).
One therapeutic approach postulated as effective for all people with IDD is a trauma-informed care approach. Many people with IDD at various cognitive levels respond well to adapted TF-CBT or EMDR. However, in some cases, such as when an individual is unable to process the traumatic events abstractly, approaching trauma directly could lead to worsening symptomatology and unnecessary and inadvertent re-traumatization. Trauma therapy is also contraindicated when acute psychiatric instability, severe suicidality or self-injury are present.
Empowers patients with a sense of control over their lives. Promotes healing and wellness.
- Awareness of the prevalence of trauma in the IDD community
- Prioritize physical and emotional safety
- Choice and empowerment, utilizing strengths
- Preventing re-traumatization
- Emphasis on the environment, educating caregivers on trauma effects and how to support patients in a positive way
- Removal of potential environmental triggers in the patient’s immediate environment
- Educate caregivers on removing triggers and learning appropriate interventions to deal with challenges
- Structured activities revolving around strengths, preferences, and choices
- Empathetically addressing challenges as they arise
Medications may serve as useful adjuncts to psychotherapeutic treatment modalities. One drawback to pharmacological management of PTSD is the complex pathophysiology of its core symptoms. For example, trauma can alter sleep (nightmares, night terrors), and affect emotional regulation, fear conditioning and generalization (sensitization and neuroplasticity) among other things. Trauma affects brain neurocircuitry and functional neuroanatomy by essentially kidnapping the entrainment of stress response networks. Dysregulation can occur when there is an upset to the balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Changes in selectivity and reactivity of the HPA axis contribute to the dysregulation of cortisol responses to stress. These alterations interfere with a person’s ability to respond to stressful situations in adaptive ways, self-regulate, and discriminate safe conditions from those that activate “fight or flight” responses.
Antidepressants have been the most studied medications in the pharmacologic treatment of PTSD and more specifically, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are the treatment of choice. There are other psychopharmacological interventions recommended based on the display of symptoms as described in Table 3.
Table 3: Psychopharmacological treatment approaches for PTSD in patients with IDD
|Most commonly used and recommended medications
|Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
|Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs)
Non-stimulant ADHD medications
Considerations when selecting psychiatric medications:
Careful attention must be paid to family history of response to medication and comorbid conditions. For individuals with Bipolar Disorder, antidepressants can cause a switch from depression to mania and worsen outcomes. In this case, antidepressant medications may be contraindicated, and a mood stabilizer may be indicated instead. Also, a robust response from a close family member may indicate a potential response for the individual. Other considerations in patients with ID include higher levels of general medical conditions and side effects from medications. Because of this, any medication administration must be paired with a thorough medical evaluation and frequent monitoring for potential adverse medication effects.
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